I was privileged to be invited to the XI Congreso Internacional de Historia de la Cultura Escrita, held this June in Alcalá de Henares, which will for me be forever remembered as the city of storks – these enormous birds nest atop many of the old buildings around the Calle de Colegios, clacking their beaks as you walk the streets below.

I will be honest: I was at a bit of a loss when it came to most of the papers, as my Spanish is only rudimentary despite several attempts to learn over the course of about 30 years; my French is worse and my Italian is non-existent. Nevertheless, it was certainly an experience.

The inaugural lecture was given by Beatrice Frankel, on Montaigne, and the conference coincided with the opening of an exhibition of Alcalá’s environmental print over the years.

Veronica Sierra Blas, Beatrice Frankel and Antonio Castillo Gómez

I enjoyed Veronica Calsoni Lima’s paper, ‘From official to clandestine presses: the publishing businesses of Giles Calvert and Thomas Brewster in the 1650s’.  She began by describing the rapid circulation of news during the run up to the Civil War, and the breakdown of censorship which led to a flood of printed material. After 1653, there were new attempts to clampdown, and Cromwell’s regime began attempts to find a new official printer. Four men were considered, and between May and August at least 25 official texts were shared between them. Received wisdom is that Brewster and Calvert were the less obvious choices within the four potential printer, as they had associations with radical groups. But Veronica pointed out that this period coincided with the Nominated Assembly, or ‘Barebones Parliament’, which makes their presence fairly reasonable given it was made up of religious radicals itself. The folio-sized official publications they produced were intended to be pinned up in public and had large titles to catch the reader’s attention from a distance, decorated capital letters, the commonwealth’s arms, and shared imprints.

But after August, Brewster and Calvert disappear from official publications. Veronica suggested that this might be due to their radical sympathies and links with separatist congregations. They printed anti-royalist propaganda and pro-commonwealth propaganda, but also radical religious tracts by Quakers, Baptists and Fifth Monarchists. They also started to print anti-Cromwell propaganda, which got them into trouble. She took as her examples Edward Burrough’s ‘A trumpet of the Lord’ (which was a millenarian pamphlet that landed the printer in prison) and Henry Vane’s ‘A Healing Question’. Neither pamphlet has the official information, and although they have large titles, they don’t have complete imprints. Later clandestine works have no names for author, printer, or publisher. She suggested that the controversial texts that they published at the same time they were publishing official material, led to them being dropped as official printers.

She closed her remarks by commenting that other printers printed throughout the commonwealth, restoration, and under James II, which showed them to be canny businessmen, but Brewster and Calvert put their political and religious beliefs before business, risking loss of profit and even imprisonment rather than give up their ideals.

I gave my paper at one of the main panels on Wednesday afternoon.  It is the first time I have ever been on a panel with someone talking about Twitter and someone talking about mobile libraries.  I’m not entirely sure what the link was, but it certainly made for a different experience!


After the panel, we walked across Alcala to the opening of a mural, Alcala: Ciudad Escrita, on the wall of the city’s outdoor swimming pool, and to finish the evening, we went to El Sexto Sensido for the conference dinner, where I was asked to sing again for some of the delegates who had missed my paper.


All in all, it was a very interesting few days, and I enjoyed the opportunity.

I’ve just spent three days at the Society for Renaissance Studies Conference in Manchester, and very stimulating it was too. It was nice to meet some new people and hear about their work, and a few people I’ve spoken to have been interested in my work and offered to keep in touch. There were some interesting papers on execution ballads, psalm culture, the life of Carafa, Spanish Renaissance music and epitaphs, among many, many others.

Rubens – Justice

I found the art history plenary on ‘Gender and Genre in Renaissance Representations of Women’ by Bette Talvacchia of Connecticut University to be suprisingly stimulating, particularly as I know nothing about art – it’s really made me think that when I get a few minutes (oh wishful thinking if ever there was any) it’s something I’d be interested in learning about. She took issue with the received view that anonymous women in Renaissance art are usually courtesans, pointing out that portraits of unidentified men are classified as just that – unidentified men. It was absolutely fascinating.

Titian’s Isabella d’Este, Duchess of Mantua

When Titian painted this portrait of the Duchess of Mantua, Isabella d’Este, in 1536, apparently she hadn’t sat for a portrait in the flesh, so to speak, for twenty years because she didn’t want her image to age.

The conference was a brilliant experience. I’d never been to an academic conference before and although there was an element of wondering where I fit in, feeling out of my depth and wondering if I will ever know as much about my subject as other people seem to know about theirs, it’s left me buzzing and wondering what I’ve got that I could present a paper on, and where I could do it.

Melzi – Flora